D 1.1. Protocols for generic HACCP analysis for interviews and surveys

The report D1.1 includes four generic HACCP flowcharts and corresponding Hazard analysis covering the five different pathogenic microorganisms studied in SafeConsume in 1) poultry with fresh vegetables and fruits, 2) ready-to-eat food products, 3) eggs and 4) shellfish. These flowcharts and generic hazard analysis are the protocols that will be used as an approach to find the most important microbial risks as a part of the fieldwork for studying consumer behaviour. The D1.1 report starts with an introduction followed by an explanation of tables. After that, each of the flowcharts is followed by the generic hazard analysis for each of the four food categories which explain the pathogens, the hazards, the causes or sources, the risks, the critical control handling, the possibilities for controlling hazards.

D 1.2. Protocols and templates for the transdisciplinary working model (home visits including interviews, observation studies and collecting data for important parameters and microbial sampling)

The report D1.2 describe the working process of developing the protocols and templates for the transdisciplinary working model used for the transdisciplinary observations and interviews of consumers’ food handling in SafeConsume. It includes an introduction, a description of the development of the methodology used in SafeConsume and an explanation of the observation and interview guide. In addition, the transdisciplinary observation and interview guide and the supporting guide for microbiologist is included in the D1.2 report.

D 1.3. Overview of consumer behaviour and barriers filled into risk behaviour map

The D1.3 report describes the working process of mapping consumer behaviour and barriers into the risk-behaviour map (RB-map). The report includes an introduction defining the risk behaviour map as a transdisciplinary tool and a communication device and describing the type of information it includes. Furthermore, the report includes brief description of the purpose of the RB-map, the data sources added in it and the users of the RB-map. The next part of the report covers the steps and procedures taken to develop the RB-map and the interdependencies between different work packages the map consolidates. Then follows a technical description of the RB-map and the work processes from observing food handling to defining and mapping risk behaviours. The description of the work process of mapping consumer behaviour and barriers into the risk-behaviour map covers the development of the transdisciplinary working models, the fieldwork in 90 households (in France, Hungary, Norway, Portugal, Romania and the UK) including the microbial and physical observations, the development of the data document template and method for extracting observations to be entered into the RB-map, the methods for assigning observations to CCHs and critical steps, the development of expert opinions and effect on pathogens and finally, defining the barriers and opportunities for safe and unsafe food handling. The RB-map is a large data matrix formulated into an excel file including more than 10 000 observations from the fieldwork, several literature contributions and available tools and technologies on the market. The D1.3 report does not include the actual RB-map, simply because the file is too large. Instead, it provides several illustrations of the RB-map. The D1.3 report includes the template for the data document and the guidelines for the RB-map.

D 2.1: Complete overview of tools/technologies available in the market filled into the Behaviour-risk map

The project will prepare an overview of behaviours and corresponding risk for observed (WP1) and not-observed (WP2, literature review and market overview) behaviours for each Critical Consumer Handling (CCH) (Food choice, Inhibit growth, Kill/Remove, Hygiene/protection, Personal Hygiene). From retail to consumption, five pathogens and corresponding foods will be considered (Salmonella/eggs and poultry; Campylobacter/poultry; Toxoplasma sp./fruits and vegetables; Norovirus/ vegetables, fruit and bivalve molluscs; Listeria spp./RTE). Each documented (observed, found in literature or in the surveys) critical consumer handling will be fed into a Risk-Behaviour Map together with corresponding risk estimates, barriers for change, operational/monitoring parameters and other important decision factors (sustainability, health). The Risk-Behaviour Map will be translated to an Opportunity map targeted to Market actors, Authorities and Scientists covering the innovation space and potential. This will be a central “document” for knowledge transfer, prioritization and choice of mitigation strategies and is based on risk reduction potential, sustainability impact, and market considerations for the respective strategy. This deliverable presents an overview of tools and technologies for food preparation and monitoring safety (with and without documented effect) that are already available in the markets. This was prepared based on information collected through internet search (different languages), visits to shops, contact with suppliers of equipment, retailers and producers and conversations with consumers. For each tool/technology identified (type of product, product name/brand) the following information was filled in a template table available in SafeComsume Sharepoint: Food product related to technology; Documented effect (e.g. supplier information, link to literature); Mode of action/Active principle; Scientific validation/reference; How the tool/technology can promote the adjustment of consumer’s behaviour patterns; Quantitative evaluation (e.g., how the tool/technology could reduce risk); Barriers to utilization (e.g. mentioned by suppliers/retailers/consumers, literature); Commercialized by (link to market actor and producer(s) of the tool/technology); Available in these countries; Price (Euros)/Other relevant information (For those available but no commonly use indicate possible reason); Link to Photo. Each identified tool/technology was associated to the Step/CCHs identified in the HACCP flowchart and generic Hazard Analysis (Deliverable D 1.1) and fed into the Risk-behaviour map. Examples of tool/technologies added to the template and filled into the Risk Behaviour Map are presented as annexes to this deliverable.

D 2.2: Initial and final protocols and plans for all experimental work

Consumer behaviour in six countries when purchasing and handling food (WP1), technologies available but not adopted by consumers (WP2), literature overviews (WP2) and a list of food safety myths (WP5) already available for the project in the Risk-Behaviour Map were used as background information for selecting and planning experiments. These laboratory experiments, mimicking consumer behaviour, aim to measure the impact of consumer operational behaviours on microbial survival, growth and spread. Steps from retail to consumption for the case studies in SafeConsume where the consumer can reduce risk for foodborne infection (CCHs) were addressed in this experimental plan. Storing temperature for ready-to-eat foods (Listeria monocytogenes), heating of eggs (Salmonella), acidification of egg (Salmonella), poultry (Campylobacter) and clams (norovirus) preparation, washing of vegetables (all pathogens) and hygiene (Campylobacter, Salmonella, norovirus) are examples of critical behaviours. The failure or potential of consumer behaviours to monitor food safety was also addressed namely sensory methods (e.g. observation/smell to measure temperature abuse of sufficient heat-treating), physical methods (e.g. floating of eggs to measure time/temperature history), labelling (due-by date, origin of product) and technologies (time/temperature indicators, thermometer). Experiments to be performed in each task are described in detail in this deliverable: Task 2.2: Effect of consumer behaviour on food safety: food choices and storage conditions a) Occurrence of Toxoplasma in fruits and vegetables b) Occurrence of Salmonella in backyard eggs c) Validation of ComBase models to predict growth of Listeria monocytogenes in RTE products d) Salmonella growth at different storage temperatures e) Monitoring methods for safety - Egg floating experiment f) Time/Temperature indicators g) Preparation of popular recipes normally prepared with raw eggs compared with pasteurized eggs Task 2.3 Effect of consumer behaviour on food safety: CCHs related to killing and removing pathogens a) Killing of Salmonella during cooking of eggs b) Relation between heat inactivation of Salmonella and Campylobacter in poultry (core and surface) and consumer monitoring methods for thoroughness c) Thermal treatment to inactivate human noroviruses in bivalve molluscs d) Disinfection treatments to eliminate e) Disinfection treatments to eliminate Toxoplasma in mixed salad samples f) Disinfection treatments to eliminate bacteria in mixed salad samples g) Insufficient heat treatment of eggs because of concern for taste h) Insufficient heat treatment of poultry because of concern for taste/dryness Task 2.4 Effect of consumer hygiene on spread, survival and elimination of hazards and evaluation of monitoring for assessing performance of hygienic measures a) Pathogen transfer by salt picking during food preparation b) Effect of drying and cleaning methods on kitchen cleaning utensils c) Myth on handling cloths d) Methods for cleaning kitchen surfaces and equipment e) Occurrence and survival of human norovirus in kitchen cloth f) Handwash-Evaluation of a regular wash hand procedure vs. personal hygiene wipes g) Methods used by consumers for monitoring hygienic level of surfaces 4 Grant Agreement number: 727580 — SafeConsume — H2020-SFS-2016-2 Standardised methods to be used in the project and detailed procedures agreed between partners to enable comparable results between laboratories (e.g. Strain selection; Level of challenge inoculum; Inoculum preparation and methods of inoculation; Duration of the study; Formulation factors, process parameters and storage conditions (including relevant pre-challenge exposures that are likely to induce a stress response); Sample analyses; Interpretation of the data) are also available in this deliverable.

D 2.3. Published data on the link between behaviour and hazard reduction filled into Behaviour risk map

Four generic Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) flowcharts (1. Poultry with fresh vegetables and fruits; 2. Ready-To-Eat; 3. Eggs; 4. Shellfish) and corresponding Hazard analysis were developed in WP1 to cover five different pathogenic microorganisms (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Campylobacter, norovirus and Toxoplasma gondii) (Deliverable D1.1: HACCP flowchart and generic Hazard Analysis). Critical Consumer Handlings (CCH)- a step in the flow diagram where the consumer through actions or choices can significantly reduce risk of foodborne infection - were defined. Each CCH is accompanied by the principle of risk reducing effect: Food choice, Inhibit growth, Wash/Remove, Kill/Heat, Hygiene/protection, Personal Hygiene. The effect of consumer behaviours (documented in WP1 and from the literature) on microbial spread, growth and survival was reviewed. Information from scientific publications, risk assessment reports, technical reports, trade publications, etc., was collected, fed into Risk-Behaviour Map (113 lines) and linked to relevant CCHs. This is detailed in this deliverable, which also includes definitions of the main concepts and variables related to literature search in the Risk-Behaviour Map. A new variable also described in this deliverable "Expert opinion: Effect on pathogen" will enable a comparison of the effect on pathogens for observations of consumers behaviours where the effect on pathogens will be impossible to define by specific numbers. The expert opinion will be rough estimations of the effect on pathogens based on monitored physical data (temperatures, chemicals, microbial analysis) and observations collected in WP1 and knowledge about survival/growth/transfer kinetics of pathogens as reviewed in WP2 and will be fed into the RiskBehaviour Map. The guidelines to the Risk-Behaviour Map, including a draft description of criteria for Expert Opinion being prepared are available as an annex in this deliverable.

D 2.4. Prevalence and pathogenic potential of T. gondii in fruits and vegetables reported

Toxoplasma gondii is ranked as the third most important contributor to health burden caused by foodborne illness in Europe. Most infections in humans are asymptomatic, but severe complications may occur after congenital toxoplasma infection. The parasite may also cause retinochoroidal lesions leading to chronic ocular disease as well as lymphadenopathy, retinitis or encephalitis. Ingestion of tissue cysts from raw or undercooked meats has been recognized as an important cause of toxoplasmosis. In addition, an increasingly awareness related with the consumption of raw fruits, vegetables and water as putative routes for transmission of oocysts. This biological stage of the parasite can persist and remain infective in soil and water for long time. The absence of consensual and accurate methodologies for oocyst identification are possible explanations for the exclusion of Toxoplasma gondii on regular surveillance systems. Consequently, it is difficult to provide advices based on risk assessment on food consumption. Fresh vegetables and fruits were anticipated as possible routes of contamination based on rare or controversial scientific evidences. A complete surveillance of Toxoplasma for all foods in a European perspective is beyond the scope of this project, but SafeConsume will go beyond the state of the art by making a preliminary categorization of foods (fruits and vegetables) by risk of toxoplasmosis. So far, 20 vegetables and fruit samples usually raw consumed, were collected from local producers (7) (different locations in Portugal and Spain), and provided by supermarket suppliers (5). Eight (8) of the 20 samples were pre-washed and packed vegetables, available at local supermarkets. T. gondii oocysts were concentrated and detected after washing, water filtration and magnetic immunoseparation (method 1623.1: Cryptosporidium and Giardia in water by filtration/IMS/FA) with a double goal: 1) to remove potential Cryptosporidium spp.and Giardia spp. present in the samples; 2) to select T. gondii oocysts. A preliminary approach is possible, so far: evidences of the presence of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts are clear in many of of samples. The washing process does not remove completely the oocysts. Working with more sample data will be more informative.

D 2.5. Results from experiments documenting effect of behaviour on hazard filled into Risk-Behaviour Map

The objective of the experimental work in WP2 is to obtain information about the effect of consumer food choices, perceptions and handling on pathogens that are included in the case studies. Consumer behaviour in six countries when purchasing and handling food (WP1), technologies available but not adopted by consumers (WP2), literature overviews (WP2) and a list of food safety myths (WP5) were available as a background for planning experiments (WP2). Reports presenting a detailed description of the laboratory experiments and results were included at the internal project platform (Sharepoint). These reports were further linked to the Risk-Behaviour Map. In this way, results of experiments were filled into Risk-Behaviour Map.

D 3.1. Survey questionnaire and standardised measurement protocol

Deliverable D3.1 documents the survey instrument developed in WP3 (Survey-based HACCP and probabilistic risk assessment) of SafeConsume. The purpose of the instrument is to enable the collection of household-level food safety behaviour in ten Eurropean countries. Combined with microbial load data (from WPs 1 and 2 of SafeConsume) and dose-response information (compiled from the existing literature), these data will be the basis of the risk assessments conducted in SafeConsume. The survey instrument consists of altogether seven modules. The first of these is the cross-national core HACCP survey module. It will be presented to all respondents in all ten countries where the survey fieldwork will be conducted (Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Norway, Portugal, Romania, Spain, UK). In addition, national add-on modules were developed in seven countries (France, Germany, Hungary, Norway, Portugal, Romania, UK). The national add-on modules vary in terms of scope and length. The English-language master version of the cross-national core HACCP survey module and the ten language-specific implementations (including the national add-on modules) are included in full as appendices to this report. In addition, the report documents the sampling design and the measurement procedures that will be used when the data are collected in the field.

D 5.1. List of relevant risk mitigation interventions and messages

Deliverable 5.1. provides an overview of food safety and risk communication advice given across Europe. The report consists of two parts. In the first part, an overview of food safety advices towards end consumers in different European countries are presented (Appendix 1). These messages are structured according to the flow of critical consumer handlings: shopping, transportation, storing, washing, kitchen handling, preparation, cooking, cleaning after preparation, cooling, storing after preparation, new preparation. This overview makes it possible to compare messages offered in the different European countries, and to spot which messages are not mentioned. In the second part, risk communication advices are reviewed and presented in a table (Appendix 2). In this table, the key points from 16 sources of risk communication reports are presented. After presenting the source and year published, country/ region that the advices are developed for, the aim and goal for the risk communication, the risk communication advices given, the factors impacting level and type of communication, and tools and channel recommended, the internet link to the different sources are offered. The most significant results are: General risk communication advice follows WHO’s five keys for food safety in all countries (keep clean, separate raw and cooked, cook thoroughly, keep food at safe temperatures, use safe water and raw materials), in addition country specific topics were listed, implicating the necessity of national guidelines.

D 5.2. A meta-analysis of the antecedents and consequences of different risk mitigation strategies ready

There is a high need for in-depth analysis of the efficiency of modern, food safety related communication tools. Based on a critical review of a wide range of scientific communication studies, it can be seen, that there are just a few randomized control-trial based, follow up studies on efficiency of food –safety communications. As a general rule, it can be stated, that:

1. There is a wide choice of different methods aiming at behaviour change, but food safety related communication studies focus just on some of these solutions. Different categories of behaviour change communication methods should be applied. There is also a need to investigate these communication tools ability to change peoples’ daily food handling behaviours at home.

2. When formulating message content and choice of communication channel, adequate, well targeted segmentation is essential. From this follows, that the content and form of food safety message should be based on in-depth analysis of target groups media consumption behaviour as well as a good understanding of these groups current food safety behaviour and what type of communication that are likely to reach and affect them.

3. Since consumer do not always distinguish between food safety and food nutrition, it is important to integrate these topics when communicating towards specific target groups.

4. In case of younger generations, the role of the school is extremely important. The efficiency of school programs can be boosted by computer games and mobile applications.

5. Combining different kinds of communication channels can multiply the effect, e.g. the hand hygiene can be improved when combined with demonstrations as well as small media picture cards and posters placed on hand washing stations.

6. There is an increasing importance of social media in risk communication, however there are relatively few studies focusing on how social media communication influence food safety behaviour at home.

D 8.1. Dissemination and Exploitation Strategy

The project’s strategy has ten sections. The importance of dissemination and exploitation of project’s results is emphasised in the foreword part. Then, the objectives for achieving the strategy goals are revealed followed by the presentation of target groups and stakeholders. Brief explanations on how authorities, market actors and research society will be involved to reach specific consumers (teenagers, young men, young parents, pregnant women, elderly people) are given. Dissemination tools and exploitation tools are enumerated and described in detail (each category in a separate section). The next sections are dedicated to the roles and responsibilities that members of the SafeConsume Consortium have to bring the dissemination and exploitation strategy to life and to the way they obtain the necessary financial support for the actions they have to carry. Different indicators for monitoring and reviewing the strategy have been chosen to cover the variety of means handled for dissemination and their rationality is explained. The strategy ends with an outlook presenting its main features.

D 8.2. Website included visual profile, stakeholder database and social media profiles

A website was created for SafeConsume to make the project known and to be used as tool in dissemination of project results. Its address is safeconsume.eu and its structure is described. SafeConsume have taken into account to explore and implement utilization of social networks, so accounts were created on the most popular platforms: Facebook, YouTube, Instagram and Twitter to establish a dialogue with stakeholder groups and consumers. Meanwhile, LinkedIn will be used for connecting with food safety professionals. To professionally manage stakeholder relations over the project lifetime and share with them the project outcomes, a stakeholder database was established in an Excel format.

D 8.3. Annual Plans for Dissemination and Exploitation

After defining what dissemination and communication means for SafeConsume, the plans for this type of activity are presented for 2017, 2018 and 2019. Each plan contains a variety of activities to be sure that a multitude of channels are used to deliver SafeConsume’s messages and spread the news about project accomplishments.

D 9.1. Project Manual and Full Ethics and Security Report

The report consists of the project handbook and ethics and security document. Both documents are internal documents for the SafeConsume members and contain information and guidelines about how to handle practical, formal, ethical and safety issues in the project.

D 9.2. Data Management plan and online system

The data management plan (DMP) describes how the research data generated in SafeConsume will be handled. It is a living document that specifies what kind of data will be generated, how the data are described, where the data is stored, and whether and how they can be shared. The plan also describe how ethical issues and intellectual property rights are handled The aim of the plan is to make sure that:

• Scientific results are published in open access journals and corresponding data made public available

• Procedures are implemented to make sure that data handing in the project are in accordance with National and EU regulations with respect to sharing and protecting personal data.